The world curriculum drives from Latin which means “a race” or “the course of the race”. The curriculum may be defined as the set of subjects offered for specific program of study in a particular time of period in educational institutes, which students must fulfill in order to pass a certain level of education. It should exclude from racism and discrimination and include extra- curriculum such as sports, club etc.
There are many types of curriculum that are dependent on several prospective. Some of the important types of curriculum are given below;
Overt, Explicit, or Written Curriculum:
Written curriculum simply refers to formal instructions, directions or syllabus about required goals and objectives. It is designed by administrators, curriculum directors, teachers and district consulters. Teacher is the active participant of variety of curricula at classroom. So most of the curricula are made by curriculum expert with the helped of teacher.
As explicit by name, it includes all activities, behaviors, norms, traditions, and customs of society which directly or indirectly educate the people in the society. Societal curriculum is defined by Cortes (1981) as “the massive, ongoing, informal curriculum of family, peer group, neighborhood, church organization, occupation, mass media and other socializing forces that educate all of us throughout the our lives”.
The Hidden or Covert Curriculum:
Hidden curriculum may be referred to the unplanned curriculum, but it has an important placed in learning. It may be informal message and lesson from school administration and teacher. Longstreet and Shane (1993) defines hidden curriculum as “the hidden curriculum, which refers to the kind of learning children drive from the very nature and organizational design of the public school, as well as from behaviors and attitudes of teacher and administrators”
The Null Curriculum:
The null curriculum is not taught in a school but actually should be taught in school according to the needs of society. For example, gender or sex education, environmental education, life education, local and social culture, religion education and many other subjects are not taught in school but these are needs of society. Null curriculum first defined by Eisner, (1985- 1994) he states that,
“There is something of a paradox involved in writing about a curriculum that does not exist. Yet if we are concerned with the consequence of a school programs and role of the curriculum is in shaping those consequences, then it seems to me that we are well advised to considered not only explicit and implicit curricula but also that school are not teach……
Today, media is playing an important role in learning. Phantom curriculum is that rife and dominant message that exposure by any types of media. These messages play a major part to adopt the behavior and culture of met culture (universal concepts that are present in all cultures) or give a awareness about other culture of worlds.
This curriculum may be received at religious institutes like church, masjid and temple. The contents of concomitant curriculum may religious expression, lesson value, ethic, norm, behavior and social education.
Rhetorical curriculum is collective form of ideas which offered by policy makers, school officials, curriculum expertise and politicians. These ideas are made to change and up to date the subject.
It is actual curriculum that is delivered and presented by teacher in classroom. It includes textbook, audio, video, and different activities that initiated by teacher to achieve objectives and goals of written curriculum.
Received or Learned Curriculum:
Received curriculum is those concepts, ideas, things and contents that actually learned by students in specific period of time. This can be measured through learning outcome.