According to Huba and Fareed, “assessment is a process of gathering and discussing information, data from multiple and diverse sources to develop the deep understanding of what student know and can do with their knowledge as they get from their educational experience. The process is culminating when assessment result is used to improve to subsequent learning”.
One of the other definitions of evaluation by Erwin (assessing student learning and development) is, “assessment is the regular basis of making influence about learning and development of students. It is the process of defining, selecting, designing, collecting, analyzing, interpreting and using information to increase students learning and development.


Educational assessments are useful tools to measure the efficiency or value of students. They include all those procedures and methods which are helped by a teacher to gauge the performance of all students. These assessments also help to students to know about themselves and improve their performance.
There are the large variety of evaluations, which are helpful in different terms and conditions. For the sake of convenience, assessment can be divided into the following categories;
High-Stake- Assessments: they are used to measure the accountability of students’ learning to ensure that whether students are forcefully enrolled with learning and being taught by effective teachers.
Pre-Assessments: They are used to measure to know either student are ready for learning or not. It is usually conducted before the lesson begins.
Summative Assessments: these are held at the end of the course or academy period to measure the efficiency of students.
Interim Assessments: They are prepared during the college programs to evaluate the performance of students whether they are efficiently going toward the goals are not.
Screening Assessment: It is prepared to know about students whether they need any assistant or services or they are ready to begin the course, grade or academic program.
High-quality assessments are an integral part of the active learning of. Educational institutes can only be achieved their required goals by high-quality assessment. These assessments affect all activities of educations such as, decision, instructions, placements, advancements, curriculums, and academic programs. There are two main factors which highly affect the quality of assessments, which are reliability and validity.
Reliability: It means something reliable or trustworthy. In education, it means, the ability to measure the same thing consistently. A reliable assessment is one that consistently achieved the same result with a group of students under different but comparable conditions. Various factors have affected the reliability of assessment such as poor marking, ambiguous questions, and vague marking.
Validity: In education, valid assessment is a procedure that measures what is intended to measure. It means where practicality is required must measure that test practically along written exam. The validity of assessment is generally through content, criterion, construct and face.
It has been wildly noted that with the emergence of social media, and modern technologies, learning is now more easily assessable and practical. Knowledge increasingly distributed among many members of a learning community. In past sole source of education is teacher or school. But now technologies provide some the source for learning.

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